appanage: fiefdom

ashrafi: gold coin

bagh: garden

beg: commander

begim: Muslim lady of high rank

bhavan: building

bigha: unit of land measurement

cella: inner chamber of a temple

charbagh: garden divided into four sections; often has a pool in the middle

chenar (Platanus orientalis): large, deciduous tree, native to Europe and Asia

chini khana: row of earthen oil lamps set in a niche carved in the temple wall

crore: unit in the Indian numbering system equal to ten million

dacoit: bandit

dargah: tomb

district collector: officer in charge of revenue collection and administration in districts of India

al-Fatiha: the Opening, the first sura in the Qur’an

firman: royal mandate or decree

ghat: a broad flight of steps on a riverbank that provides access to the water

hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to take at least once in their lives

hammam: Turkish bath

haram: forbidden or proscribed by Islamic law

Jat: rural caste in northern India and Pakistan

jizya: tax on non-Muslims residing in Muslim lands

madrasa: a Muslim institute of higher learning

maʿjun: mild narcotic in chewable form

mihrab: a niche in the wall of a mosque, at the point nearest to Mecca, toward which the congregation faces to pray

minaret: tower attached to a mosque

Mughal: South Asian dynasty and empire; founded by Babur in 1526, the Mughal dynasty ruled large parts of India and Afghanistan until the mid-nineteenth century.

nala: a redirected stream

one-mill stream: stream with enough water to power one water mill

paradise garden: enclosed garden

pargana: administrative district

purdah: custom in which Muslim women separate themselves from men

qanat: cloth screen

Rajput confederation: Hindu military lineage; in the sixteenth century, led by Rana Sanga (Maharana Sangram Singh, r. 1508–28), the Rajputs blocked Babur’s quest for complete control of India

shahrukhi: silver coin

shamanism: belief in an unseen world of gods, demons, and ancestral spirits who respond only to priests and priestesses known as shamans

Timurid: Central Asian/Persian dynasty and empire founded by Timur (died 1405), whose descendant Babur founded the Mughal Empire.

zamindar: landowner

zenana: part of a house where women are secluded