Historical period(s)
Han dynasty, 2nd century BCE-2nd century CE
Jade (nephrite)
H x W x D: 18.7 x 18.7 x 0.8 cm (7 3/8 x 7 3/8 x 5/16 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Arthur M. Sackler
Arthur M. Sackler Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view
Ceremonial Object, Jade

Ceremonial object: disk (bi)

China, Han dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE)

1951 to 1953
C. T. Loo INC., New York, NY likely acquired from a source in Hong Kong [1]

1953 to 1961
C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York, NY transferred from C. T. Loo INC. on September 1, 1952 [2]

1961 to 1966
Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, NY method of acquisition from C. T. Loo Chinese Art unknown [3]

1966 to 1987
Arthur M. Sackler, New York, purchased from Frank Caro Chinese Art on September 29, 1966 in New York, NY [4]

From 1987
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of Arthur M. Sackler on September 11, 1987 [5]


[1] C. T. Loo INC was owned and operated by C. T. Loo (1880-1957), likely without a public-facing gallery. He began this company in 1948, when C. T. Loo & Company lost access to trade in China. This object was inventoried by C. T. Loo INC. as “A 483,” see report from Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, October 2009, copy in object file. Objects inventoried with an “A” prefix are often documented as coming into C. T. Loo’s stock in 1951, directly from Hong Kong (for example, see copy of stock cards A-12 and A-501, located in object file).

[2] On September 1, 1952, C. T. Loo’s associate, Frank Caro (1904-1980) took over daily operations of the New York business. C. T. Loo, INC. was dissolved by the summer of 1953 and Caro operated as C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo’s stock would be evenly divided and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company’s gallery space.

[3] In 1961, Loo and Caro’s agreement ended. C. T. Loo & Cie., Paris, France took control of C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York’s stock that C. T. Loo had added to the inventory before his death in 1957. Frank Caro then opened Frank Caro Chinese Art. Caro acquired pieces from Loo’s original stock, but the mode of acquisition is unknown.

[4] According to report cited in note 1.

[5] Pursuant to the agreement between Arthur M. Sackler and the Smithsonian Institution, dated July 28, 1982, legal title of the donated objects was transferred to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery on September 11, 1987.

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Dr. Arthur M. Sackler 1913-1987
C.T. Loo, INC. ca. 1948-no later than July 1953
C.T. Loo Chinese Art 1953-1961
Frank Caro Chinese Art 1962-1980

Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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