Shield-shaped pendant (xi) (xi)

Historical period(s)
Eastern Zhou to Western Han dynasty, 3rd-1st century BCE
Jade (nephrite)
H x W x D: 6.6 x 3 x 0.5 cm (2 5/8 x 1 3/16 x 3/16 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Arthur M. Sackler
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view
Jade, Jewelry and Ornament


China, Eastern Zhou dynasty (770 - 221 BCE), Western Han dynasty (206 BCE - 9 CE)

1928 to 1929
Likely Discovered in tomb located in in Jincun, Honan Provence, China. [1]

To 1964
Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, NY mode and source of acquisition unknown [2]

1964 to 1987
Arthur M. Sackler, New York, NY purchased from Frank Caro Chinese Art on August 27, 1964 in New York, NY [4]

From 1987
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of Arthur M. Sackler on September 11, 1987 [5]


[1] Discovery site noted as Chin ts’un on invoice from Frank Caro Chinese Art to Arthur M. Sackler, 27 August 1964, copy located in accession file. Several tombs near Chin ts’un (Jincun) in Western Honan were discovered in the summer of 1928 after heavy rain, when sinkholes began to emerge. Immediately upon discovery, the tombs were heavily scavenged by locals. Only two tombs were systematically excavated (See: William Charles White, Tombs of Old Lo-Yang: A Record of the Construction and Contents of a group of Royal Tombs at Chin-ts’un, probably dating to 550 bc. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh Limited, 1934 and William Charles White, “China’s Cultural Heritage” in Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada vol. 37 (1943): 151).

[2] See invoice from Frank Caro Chinese Art to Arthur M. Sackler, 27 August 1964, describes this object as FC-2395: "Archaic jade pendant. Hook shaped pick, finely carved Translucent. From Chin ts’un. Eastern Chou. Lt: 2-5/8 ins.” A Glass negative of image located at the C. T. Loo & Frank Caro Archive, Musée Guimet, Paris, #127.

Frank Caro Chinese Art, owned by Frank Caro, open sometime in 1961. Frank Caro had been the business associated of C. T. Loo, the famed Chinese-art dealer who operated C. T. Loo & Company and then C. T. Loo INC. through 1951. On September 1, 1952, Frank Caro (1904-1980) took over daily operations of the New York business, operating at C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo’s stock would be evenly divided and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company’s gallery space. Although Loo died in 1947, the agreement continued to 1961. Upon the conclusion of their agreement, Frank Caro opened Fran Caro Chinese Art, New York. Objects that Frank Caro acquired while operating his own business were typically inventoried with an “FC” stock number; it is likely that Caro acquired this object after 1961, when he became an independent dealer.

[3] Arthur M. Sackler purchased this jade from Frank Caro Chinese Art in August 27, 1964, see note 3.

[4] Pursuant to the agreement between Arthur M. Sackler and the Smithsonian Institution, dated July 28, 1982, legal title of the donated objects was transferred to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery on September 11, 1987.

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Dr. Arthur M. Sackler 1913-1987
Frank Caro Chinese Art 1962-1980

Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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