Likely to late 1940
Zhang Naiji (1899–1948), Shanghai, China then New York, NY 
1948 to early 1950s
Zhang Mei Chien (1901–c.1955), New York, NY inherited upon her husband’s death 
Around 1954 to 1961
C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York, NY by transfer from C. T. Loo, INC. on September 1, 1952 
As early as 1961 to 1964
Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, New York, mode of acquisition unknown 
1964 to 1987
Arthur M. Sackler, New York, NY purchased from Frank Caro Chinese Art on August 27, 1964 in New York, NY 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of Arthur M. Sackler on September 11, 1987 
 August 27, 1964 invoice from Frank Caro Chinese Art, addressed to Dr. Arthur M. Sackler indicates that this object was inventoried as J-167 (copy located in object file, full copy in FǀS COM provenance files). Objects in Caro’s inventory beginning with the prefix “J” and numbered 1 to (approx.) 170, are identified as originating in the “Chang Collection.”
Zhang Naiji (also known as N.C. Chang) was a businessman, born to a prestigious family in Zhejiang that made their wealth in the silk and salt industries. He collected ancient Chinese art objects and Chinese coins. Zhang amassed his collection whilst living in Shanghai, before leaving for America in 1938, and acquired his objects onsite of archeological excavations (see: Alfred Salmony, Chinese Jade through the Wei Dynasty. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1963: 115.).
Zhang lent his collection anonymously to Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition. We know his identity through letters housed in the Department of Archives, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (see: letter, C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 25 October 1939 and letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 16 December 1939), copies in FǀS COM provenance files. The exhibition was entirely organized by C. T. Loo & Company, New York. Letters exchanged between C. T. Loo and the director of The University Museum, Mr. Horace H.F. Jayne, reveal that Zhang Naiji owned the objects and C. T. Loo & Company had the collection on consignment (see: letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 28 May 1939 and letter, from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, 23 October 1940, copies on COM provenance files). C. T. Loo & Company kept the jade collection – including pieces that were and were no exhibited in the 1940 show – on consignment from 1940 through Zhang’s death in 1948, inventorying the pieces with a prefix “J” and labeling each item as “Chang Collection.” This object was not in the 1940 exhibition.
 Zhang Mei Chien, Zhang Naiji’s wife, assumed ownership upon his death in 1948. She sold several pieces from her husband’s collection to both C. T. Loo Chinese Art (see note 4) and J. T. Tai & Company. She sold to J. T. Tai & Company in July 1954 (for example, see J. T. Tai & Company Stock Record YT 886 and YT 895, copies in COM provenance files).
 See note 2. When C. T. Loo & Company purchased the object, they retained the same stock number that they assigned the object when the company consigned it: J-145 (see note 7). The exact date of purchase is unknown.
On September 1, 1952, C. T. Loo’s associate, Frank Caro (1904-1980) took over daily operations of the New York business, operating at C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo’s stock would be evenly divided and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company’s gallery space. It is unclear when C. T. Loo Chinese Art acquired items from Zhang Mei Chien, but we know they did as this object and several other jades from Zhang’s collection were sold by Frank Caro through his subsequent business.
 In 1961, Loo and Caro’s agreement ended. C. T. Loo & Cie., Paris, France took control of C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York’s stock that C. T. Loo had added to the inventory before his death in 1957. Frank Caro then opened Frank Caro Chinese Art. Caro acquired pieces from Loo’s original stock (the mode of acquisition is unknown) and incorporated them into his own stock. Frank Caro Chinese Art continued to use the stock numbers assigned to objects by C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Frank Caro Chinese Art sold this object to Dr. Arthur Sackler. Frank Caro Chinese Art sold this object to Dr. Arthur Sackler. See: “J-167: Archaic jade pendent in form of curved KUEI, Yin Chou LT: 1- 3/8 ins (Chang Coll),” included on invoice from Frank Caro Chinese Art to Arthur M. Sackler, August 27, 1964, copy in accession file.
 See invoice referenced in note 6.
 Pursuant to the agreement between Arthur M. Sackler and the Smithsonian Institution, dated July 28, 1982, legal title of the donated objects was transferred to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery on September 11, 1987.
- Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)
Zhang Naiji 1899-1948
Zhang Mei Chien 1900-1998
Dr. Arthur M. Sackler 1913-1987
C.T. Loo & Company 1914-1948
C.T. Loo, INC. ca. 1948-no later than July 1953
C.T. Loo Chinese Art 1953-1961
Frank Caro Chinese Art 1962-1980
Pendant kui 夔; incised, carved and pierced; opaque tan coloration. (Calcified.)
- Published References
- J. Keith Wilson, Jingmin Zhang. Jades for Life and Death. .
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
- Web Resources
- Jades for Life and Death
- Google Cultural Institute
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