Stele with Daoist Triad and Three Daoist Scriptures in standard script

Artist: Bai Jiancan 白建璨 (late 10th century)
Calligrapher: Pang Renxian 龐仁顯 (late 10th century)
Historical period(s)
Northern Song dynasty, inscription: 980; rubbing: 20th century
Ink on paper
H x W (image): 121.8 x 64.1 cm (47 15/16 x 25 1/4 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Peking University
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view
Calligraphy, Rubbing

Rubbing (mounted on panel)

China, Daoism, Northern Song dynasty (960 - 1127), Scripture of Ascension to Darkness, Elimination of Calamities, and Protection of Lives, Scripture of Ascension to Heaven and Attainment of the Way, Scripture of Constant Purity and Tranquility

To ?
Peking University, Beijing, China. [1]

From 1976
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Peking University, Beijing, China. [2]


[1] According to the Curatorial Remark 4 in the object record, this rubbing was donated by Peking University, Beijing, China at an undetermined date.

[2] According to Kate Theimer’s note from June 6, 1995, “This rubbing appears to have been given by the Peking University to the Freer Gallery of Art at an undetermined date prior to 1976. It was transferred from the Library to the permanent collection in 1976.” Also see object file, and the Freer Gallery of Art Purchase List after 1920, Collections Management Office.

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Peking University


In China, Daoist scriptures were the objects of reverence and incense offerings, treated, in effect, as if they were portraits of gods. Printed from a tenth-century temple stele, this rubbing contains a Daoist triad and three Daoist scriptures. The triad features the Three Purities, the highest gods in Daoism. The texts include, from top to bottom, the Scripture of Constant Purity and Tranquility; the Scripture of Ascension to Darkness, Elimination of Calamities, and Protection of Lives; and the Scripture of Ascension to Heaven and Attainment of the Way.

Published References
  • Wang Ch'ang. Chin shih ts'ui pien. .
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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