Sixteen Luohan

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Artist: Fanlong 梵隆 (active mid-12th century)
Historical period(s)
Southern Song dynasty, mid-12th century
Ink on paper
H x W (image): 30.5 x 1062.5 cm (12 x 418 5/16 in)
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view


Arhat, baimiao style, Buddhism, China, Southern Song dynasty (1127 - 1279)
Provenance research underway.

To learn more about this and similar objects, visit Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy.

Published References
  • Thomas Lawton. "画中人 上海书画出版社." Chinese Figure Painting. Shanghai, China. .
  • China's Last Empire: The Art and Culture of the Qing Dynasty, 1644-1911. .
  • Nakata Yujiro, Fu Shen. O-bei shuzo Chugoku hosho meiseki shu [Masterpieces of Chinese Calligraphy in American and European Collections]. 6 vols., Tokyo, 1981-1983. vol. 4: pls. 42-43.
  • Suzuki Kei. Chugoku kaiga sogo zuroku [Comprehensive Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Painting]. 5 vols., Tokyo, 1982-1983. vol. 1: pp. 218-19.
  • Suzuki Kei. Chugoku kaiga shi. 8 vols., Tokyo, 1981-1988. vol. 2, pl. 31.
  • Helmut Brinker. Shussan Shaks in Sung and Yuan Painting. vol. 9 Washington and Ann Arbor. pl. 4.
  • Helmut Brinker. Ch'an Portraits in Landscape. vol. 27 New York and Honolulu, HI, 1973-1974. pp. 8-29, fig. 30.
  • Barbara Brennan Ford. The Self-Portrait of Sesson Shukei. vol. 35 New York and Honolulu, HI. p. 15, fig. 8.
  • Chang Wen-chi. "醉僧之意不在酒--宋代醉僧圖的意涵." Beyond Drunkenness: Song Paintings of Drunken Monk. vol. 33, no.4 Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. p. 31, fig. 13.
  • Yuchi Yu. Ding Yunpeng, the Descendant of Li Gonglin, who was modeled by monks and laypeople, and his "Line Drawing Ying Zhen Tu" (僧俗共塑的李公麟傳人 丁雲鵬及其〈白描應真圖〉). Vol. 448 Taipei City, Taiwan, July 2020. p. 70, 74-75, 78-79, and 80-81, figs. 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11.
  • Richard K. Kent. Ding Yunpeng's Baimiao Lohans: A Reflection of Late Ming Lay Buddhism. Princeton. p. 76.
  • James Cahill. Chinese Painting. Treasures of Asia Geneva and Cleveland. p. 94.
  • Thomas Lawton. Chinese Figure Painting. Exh. cat. Washington, 1973. cat. 20, pp. 98-101.
  • Paths to Perfection, Buddhist Art at the Freer/Sackler. Washington. pp. 162-163.
  • Richard M. Barnhart. Li Kung-lin's Hsiao-Ching t'u: Illustrations of the Classic of Filial Piety. 2 vols. Ann Arbor. pp. 201-203, microfilm 25.
  • Shane McCausland. Zhao Mengfu: Calligraphy and Painting for Khubilai's China. Hong Kong. p. 325, fig. 4.34.
  • Kathleen Yang. Through a Chinese Connoisseur's Eye: Private Notes of C.C. Wang. Beijing. p.338, fig.118.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy
Google Cultural Institute
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