Page from the St. Petersburg album

Calligrapher: Imad al-Hasani (died 1615)
Borders: Muhammad Hadi (Iranian, active mid-18th century)
Historical period(s)
Mughal dynasty, calligraphy early 17th century, margins 1755-56
Mughal Court
Mughal School
Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper
H x W: 30.7 x 19.5 cm (12 1/16 x 7 11/16 in)
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view
Album, Calligraphy

Album leaf with calligraphy

illumination, India, Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858), nasta'liq script
Provenance research underway.
Published References
  • Richard Ettinghausen. The Emperor's Choice., reprint. New York. pl. 27.
  • Richard Ettinghausen. Paintings of the Sultans and Emperors of India in American Collections. Lalit Kala Series of Indian Art New Delhi. pl. 14.
  • Annemarie Schimmel. Stern und Blume: die Bilderwelt der Persischen Poesie. Sammlung Harrassowitz Wiesbaden. p. 3.
  • Pauline C.M. Scheurleer. Mongol-miniaturen door Rembrandt nagetekend. De Kronisk van het Rembrandthuis Amsterdam. p. 19.
  • Pierre-Jacques Charliat. Le Temps des Grands Voliers. Histoire Universal e des Explorations Paris. p. 25.
  • Milo Cleveland Beach. The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court. Exh. cat. Washington, 1981. cat. 17, pp. 27,79, 168-9.
  • A. T. Adamova. Mediaeval Persian Painting: The Evolution of an Artistic Vision. Biennial Ehsan Yarshater Lecture Series, no. 3 New York. p. 83.
  • Mario Bussagli. Indian Miniatures. London and New York. p. 113, pl. 51.
  • Milo Cleveland Beach. The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court., 2nd ed. Washington and Ahmedabad, India, 2012. cat. 22C, pp. 126-8.
  • Sherman Lee. A History of Far Eastern Art. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964. p. 191, fig. 15.
  • Emma Devapriam. The Influence of Western Art on Mughal Painting. Ann Arbor. p. 284.
  • Sheila Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom. The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250-1800. Yale University Press Pelican History of Art London. p. 295, fig. 372.
  • Geoffrey Parker. The World: An Illustrated History. London. p. 313.
  • Edwards Park. Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution., 1st ed. Washington and New York. p. 351.
  • Hermann Goetz. Review of Richard Ettinghausen's "Paintings of the Sultans and Emperors of India in American Collections". vol. 60. pp. 400-402.
  • Islamic Art and Archaeology: Collected Papers. Berlin. pp. 479, 665.
Collection Area(s)
South Asian and Himalayan Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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