Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings from the St. Petersburg Album

Artist: Bichitr (active between ca. 1615 -1640) Margins by Muhammad Sadiq
Historical period(s)
Mughal dynasty, Reign of Jahangir, ca. 1615-1618, margins 1747-48
Mughal Court
Mughal School
Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper
H x W (image): 25.3 × 18 cm (9 15/16 × 7 1/16 in) H x W (border): 46.9 × 30.7 cm (18 7/16 × 12 1/16 in)
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view

Album leaf with painting

emperor, hourglass, India, moon, Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858), Reign of Jahangir (1605 - 1627), Sufi, Sufism, sun
Provenance research underway.
Published References
  • Edmond Smith. Merchants: The Community That Shaped England's Trade and Empire, 1550-1650. New Haven and London, October 26, 2021. fig. 5.
  • Susan Stronge. Bejewelled Treasures: The Al Thani Collection. .
  • Vera Keller. Air Conditioning Jahangir: The 1622 English Great Design, Climate, and the Nature of Global Projects. vol. 21, no. 3, 2013. .
  • A. Azfar Moin. The Millennial Sovereign: Sacred Kingship & Sainthood in Islam. cover and p. 207.
  • Richard C. Martin. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. 2 vols., . vol. 1: p. 302.
  • Michael Kampen O'Riley. Art Beyond the West: The Arts of Western and Central Asia, India and Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Korea, the Pacific, Africa, and the Americas., 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. pl. 3.35.
  • Heike Franke. Akbar und Gahangir: Untersuchungen zur politischen und religiosen Legitimation in Text und Bild. Bonner Islamstudien, no. 12. pl. 24.
  • Gloria K. Fiero. The Humanistic Tradition. 6 vols., , 5th ed. New York. .
  • Engel, Heft 4, 2017. Dresden, Germany, April 2017. p. 14, fig. 4.
  • Ali Anooshahr. The Mughal Empire from Jahangir to Shah Jahan: Art, Architecture, Politics, Law and Literature. Mumbai, India. p. 23, fig. 1.
  • Kjeld von Folsach. The Human Figure in Islamic Art: Holy Men, Princes, and Commoners. Exh. cat. Denmark, October 2017. p. 36, fig. 10.
  • Empire and Art: British India. Art and Global Histories Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, January 2018. p. 40, plate 1.9.
  • Paula Henderson. Elysian Fields such as the poets dreamed of: The Mughal Garden in the Early Stuart Mind. vol. 10, no. 3 London, December 2009. pp. 42-43, fig. 12.
  • Abdelwahab Meddeb. Occident Visto desde Orient. Exh. cat. Barcelona. p. 45.
  • Anand Amaladass, Gudrun Loewner. Christian Themes in Indian Art. India. p. 48.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. World Views: Topics in Non-Western Art., 1st ed. Boston. p. 57.
  • Christiane Gruber. Moon: A Voyage Through Time. Toronto, Ontario. p. 58 and 169, fig. 3 and plate 44.
  • Amina Taha Hussein-Okada. "La peinture en Inde." Painting in India. Sentiers d'Art Paris, France. p. 61.
  • Gerald MacLean, Nabil Matar. Britain and the Islamic World. p. 73 and cover, fig. 5.
  • Orientations. Vol. 51, No. 5. Hong Kong, September/October 2020. p. 74, fig. 11.
  • B.N. Goswamy. The Spirit of Indian Painting: Close Encounters with 101 Great Works, 1100-1900. Gurgaon, Haryana, India. pp. 98, 323.
  • Ideals of Beauty: Asian and American Art in the Freer and Sackler Galleries. Thames and Hudson World of Art London and Washington, 2010. pp. 112-113.
  • Milo Cleveland Beach. The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court., 2nd ed. Washington and Ahmedabad, India, 2012. cat. 22C, pp. 126-8.
  • Prof. Michael Zell. Rembrandt, Vermeer, and the Gift in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age Amsterdam, August 9, 2021. p. 132, fig. 39.
  • Oleg Grabar. Masterpieces of Islamic Art: The Decorated Page from the 8th to the 17th Century., English ed. New York. pp. 134-5, pl. 62.
  • Encompassing the Globe: Portugal and the World in the 16th & 17th Centuries. Exh. cat. Washington, 2007. P-68, p. 136.
  • Jos Gommans. The Unseen World: India and The Netherlands from 1550. Nijmegen, Netherlands. p. 160, fig. 2.59.
  • Hugo Miguel Crespo. Diamonds Across Time: Facets of Mankind. London, February 1, 2021. p. 174, fig. 1.
  • Timon Screech. The Shogun's Silver Telescope: God, Art, and Money in the English Quest for Japan, 1600-1625. Oxford, United Kingdom, December 14, 2020. p. 196, fig. 7.1.
  • Joseph M. Dye. The Arts of India. London. p. 216, fig. 70.
  • Stephen Frederic Dale. The Muslim Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals., 1st ed. New York and Cambridge. p. 242, fig. 21.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. A History of Western Art., 4th ed. Boston. p. 352, fig. 19.22.
  • et al. The Heritage of World Civilization. combined volume, , 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. p. 476.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. Art Across Time., 4th ed. New York. pp. 660-662, fig. w8.2.
  • Laurie Schneider Adams. Art Across Time., 3rd ed. Boston. p. 668, fig. W8.2.
Collection Area(s)
South Asian and Himalayan Art
Web Resources
Worlds within Worlds: Imperial Paintings from India and Iran
Google Cultural Institute
SI Usage Statement

Usage Conditions Apply

There are restrictions for re-using this image. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

The information presented on this website may be revised and updated at any time as ongoing research progresses or as otherwise warranted. Pending any such revisions and updates, information on this site may be incomplete or inaccurate or may contain typographical errors. Neither the Smithsonian nor its regents, officers, employees, or agents make any representations about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the information on the site. Use this site and the information provided on it subject to your own judgment. The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery welcome information that would augment or clarify the ownership history of objects in their collections.