Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva

Historical period(s)
Northern Song dynasty, late 10th-early 11th century
Ink, color, and gold on silk
H x W (image): 106.6 x 58.1 cm (41 15/16 x 22 7/8 in)
China, Gansu province, Dunhuang
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view

Hanging scroll (mounted on panel)

attendant, bamboo, bodhisattva, Buddhism, China, fan, flower, khakkhara, Ksitigarbha, landscape, lion, monk, Northern Song dynasty (960 - 1127), princess, rock, Song dynasty (960 - 1279), Vajrasattva

?-to at least 1935
Tonying and Company, New York, NY, method of acquisition unknown [1]

From 1935
The Freer Gallery of Art purchased from Tonying and Company [2]


[1] See Ton-Ying & Company invoice to Freer Gallery of Art, March 2, 1935, and marked approved on January 22, 1935. Copy in object file.

[2] The Freer Gallery of Art purchased the scroll from Tonying and Company, see note 1.

Research Completed November 21, 2022

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Tonying and Company established 1902


To learn more about this and similar objects, visit http://www.asia.si.edu/SongYuan/default.asp Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy.

Published References
  • Smithsonian Institution. Report of the Secretary, 1935. Washington, 1935-1936. pl. 2.
  • Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1935. Washington, 1935-1936. appendix 3, pl. 2.
  • Tanaka Kenro, Omura Seigai. Chugoku meigashu [Collection of Famous Chinese Paintings]. 8 vols., Tokyo. vol. 1.
  • Zhangju Liang, Jian Zhang. Illustrated Catalogue of Famous Paintings from the Great Collection of the Celebrated Connoisseur of Art, Liang Chang-chu of Foochow. China. pl. 3a.
  • Richard Ettinghausen, Ernst Kuhnel. A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present. 6 vols., London and New York, 1938 - 1939. vol. 1: p. 847.
  • Scientific Studies of Pigments in Chinese Paintings. Washington, DC. p. 11, fig. 1.2.
  • Grace Dunham Guest, Archibald Gibson Wenley. Annotated Outlines of the History of Chinese Arts. Washington, 1949. p. 11.
  • Donald S. Lopez Jr, Rebecca Bloom. Hyecho's Journey: The World of Buddhism. Chicago, December 2017. p. 56, fig. 3.
  • Paths to Perfection, Buddhist Art at the Freer/Sackler. Washington. pp. 70-71, 88-89.
  • Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics. vol. 2, Washington, London. p. 78.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy
Google Cultural Institute
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