Folio from a Mihr-u Mushtari (The Sun and Jupiter) by Shams al-Din Muhammad Assar Tabrizi (d. ca. 1382); verso: Mihr at school; recto: text, Shah Shapur sends Mihr and Mushtari to school

Calligrapher: Ibrahim Khalil
Historical period(s)
Shaybanid dynasty, Uzbek period, 1523-24 (930 A.H.)
Opaque watercolor and gold on paper
H x W: 19.7 x 11.6 cm (7 3/4 x 4 9/16 in)
Uzbekistan, Bukhara
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view

Manuscript folio

Mihr, Mushtari, prince, school, student, Uzbek period (1500 - 1598), Uzbekistan

Before 1914-? 
Victor Goloubew (1878-1945), method of acquisition unknown [1] 

About 1914-1931
Ownership information unknown

By at least 1931-?
Kalebjian Frères, Paris and Cairo, method of acquisition unknown [2]

?-to at least 1932 
H. Kevorkian, New York, method of acquisition unknown [3] 

From 1932 
The Freer Gallery of Art, purchased from H. Kevorkian, New York [4] 


[1] See Philipp Walter Schulz, “Die Persich-islamische Miniaturmalerei” v.2 [book] (Leipzig: Verlag von Karl W. Hiersemann, 1914), pl. 79. Schulz attributes the folio to the collection of Victor de Goloubew. Victor Goloubew was a Russian aristocrat who collected Persian, South-Asian, and European art. An archaeologist and engineer, he was among the first to use aerial photography to study Angkor Wat in Cambodia. He moved to Paris in 1904, and after losing his property in the Russian revolution he sold most of his collections.  

[2] See Laurence Binyon, J.V.S. Wilkinson and Basil Grey, “Persian Miniature Painting: Including a Critical Descriptive catalogue of the Miniatures Exhibited at Burlington House, January-March, 1931” [book] (London: Oxford University Press, 1933), p. 123, no.106(a), pl. LXXX-B. Entry states: “Four full-page miniatures. Lacquer binding. Lent by Kalebdjian [sic.], Paris”. Kalebjian Frères was an antiquities gallery in Paris operated by brothers Hagop and Garbis (1885-1954). They also maintained business in Cairo.

[3] Hagop Kevorkian (1872-1962), was a dealer and collector of Islamic and Persian works with eponymous galleries in New York and Paris. See March 17, 1932 letter to J.E. Lodge, copy in object file; see also note 4. 

[4] See H. Kevorkian invoice to Freer Gallery of Art, February 2, 1932, and marked approved on February 2, 1932.  

Research updated December 14, 2022

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Kalebjian Frères
Hagop Kevorkian 1872-1962
Victor Goloubew 1878-1945

Published References
  • Philipp Walter Schulz. Die Persisch-Islamische Miniaturmalerei: Ein Beitrag zur Kunstgeschichte Irans. 2 vols, Leipzig. pl. 79.
  • Richard Ettinghausen, Ernst Kuhnel. A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present. 6 vols., London and New York, 1938 - 1939. vol. 3: p. 1871.
  • Dr. Esin Atil. Exhibition of 2500 Years of Persian Art. Exh. cat. Washington, 1971. cat. 28, p. 10.
  • Gore Ouseley, James Reynolds. Biographical Notices of Persian Poets, With Critical and Explanatory Remarks. Oriental Translation Fund (Series), vol. 61 London. p. 202.
  • Glenn D. Lowry, Milo Cleveland Beach, Elisabeth West FitzHugh, Susan Nemanzee, Janet Snyder. An Annotated and Illustrated Checklist of the Vever Collection. Washington and Seattle. p. 338.
Collection Area(s)
Arts of the Islamic World
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
SI Usage Statement

Usage Conditions Apply

There are restrictions for re-using this image. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

The information presented on this website may be revised and updated at any time as ongoing research progresses or as otherwise warranted. Pending any such revisions and updates, information on this site may be incomplete or inaccurate or may contain typographical errors. Neither the Smithsonian nor its regents, officers, employees, or agents make any representations about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the information on the site. Use this site and the information provided on it subject to your own judgment. The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery welcome information that would augment or clarify the ownership history of objects in their collections.

Related Objects