Elizabeth T. Riefstahl, to 1930 
Freer Gallery of Art, purchased from Elizabeth T. Riefstahl in 1930 
 Object file, undated folder sheet note.
 See note 1. Also see Freer Gallery of Art Purchase List file, Collections Management Office.
- Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)
Elizabeth T. Riefstahl
Detached folio from a dispersed copy of the Qur'an; recto: Sura Sad ( Sad) 38: 87-88, illuminated chapter heading in white with a palmette, Sura al-Zumar (the Troops) 39: part of verse 1; verso: sura 39: 1-2; Arabic in black kufic script; gold orbs stacked as illuminated pyramid-shaped verse markers, an illuminated leaf-shaped medallion verse marker; vocalized in red; one column; 6 lines of text; one of a group of 13 folios.
The earliest Qur'ans were copied in a rectangular script, generally known as kufic. Employed throughout the early Islamic world, this script is notable for its short verticals, elongated horizontals, and red vowel marks. Another characteristic of this calligraphic style is the pronounced spaces between words and letters that appear visually as significant as the words themselves. The illuminated chapter heading, terminating in an elegant palmette in the margin, indicates a break in the text.
- Published References
- "アラブは、美しい." Arabs Are Beautiful. Japan, November 2020. page 104.
- Benjamin Rowland, Laurence Sickman, H. G. Henderson, Robert Treat Paine, Richard Ettinghausen, Eric Schroeder. The University Prints. Oriental Art Series O 4 vols. Newton, Massachusetts, 1938-1941. Section 4: Iranian and Islamic Art, pl. 453.
- Dennis Sporre. The Creative Impulse: An Introduction to the Arts., 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. fig. 6.33.
- Tilman Nagel. Der Koran: Einfuhrung, Texte, Erlauterungen
. Munich. front cover.
- Dr. Esin Atil. Art of the Arab World. Exh. cat. Washington, 1975. cat. 3, pp. 18-19.
- Annette Hagedorn. Islamic Art. Germany. p. 29.
- Hunt Janin. The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World, 610-2003. Jefferson, North Carolina. p. 35.
- Richard Ettinghausen, O. Graber. The Art and Architecture of Islam, 650-1250. The Pelican History of Art Hammondsworth, United Kingdom and New York. p. 121, fig. 102.
- Edmund Burke Feldman. Thinking About Art. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. p. 129.
- Richard Ettinghausen. The Arts of Iran at the Time of Avicenna: Société iranienne pour la conservation des monuments nationaux. vol. 4, Tehran. pp. 132-138, fig. 4.
- Donald S. Lopez Jr, Rebecca Bloom. Hyecho's Journey: The World of Buddhism. Chicago, December 2017. p. 203, fig. 23.
- Islamic Art and Archaeology: Collected Papers. Berlin. pp. 892-913.
- Collection Area(s)
- Arts of the Islamic World
- Web Resources
- Google Cultural Institute
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