Tao Yuanming Returning to Seclusion

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Artist: Traditionally attributed to Li Gonglin (傳)李公麟 (ca. 1049-1106)
Calligrapher: Li Peng 李彭 , inscriptions and colophon (ca. 1060-1110)
Historical period(s)
Northern Song dynasty, early 12th century
Ink and color on silk
H x W (image): 37 x 521.5 cm (14 9/16 x 205 5/16 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view


baimiao style, boat, China, Northern Song dynasty (960 - 1127), poet, semi-cursive script, Song dynasty (960 - 1279), Tao Yuanming

To 1919
Wang Jiantang, Shanghai to 1919 [1]

Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Wang Jiantang in 1919 [2]

From 1920
The Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [3]


[1] See Original Kakemono and Makimono List, L. 1314, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Makimono paintings F1919.119 and F1919.120 were mounted as one scroll in 1929, and placed on exhibition. The scroll was then given the number F1919.119 (see Curatorial Remark 4 in the object record). Also, this object exhibits seals, colophons, or inscriptions that could provide additional information regarding the object’s history. See Curatorial Remarks in the object record for further details.

[2] See note 1.

[3] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Charles Lang Freer 1854-1919
Wang Jiantang (C.L. Freer source) late 19th-early 20th century


To learn more about this and similar objects, visit http://www.asia.si.edu/SongYuan/default.asp Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy.

Published References
  • Thomas Lawton. "画中人 上海书画出版社." Chinese Figure Painting. Shanghai, China. .
  • unknown title. no. 8. .
  • Constance Bond. Body and Face in Chinese Visual Culture. Harvard East Asian Monographs, no. 239 Cambridge, Massachusetts. .
  • Shou-Chien Shih. Eremitism in Landscape Paintings by Chien Hsuan (ca. 1235-before 1307). Ann Arbor. fig. 24.
  • Marsha Weidner, University of California. Painting and Patronage at the Mongol Court of China, 1260-1368. Ann Arbor. pls. 71-78.
  • Suzuki Kei. Chugoku kaiga sogo zuroku [Comprehensive Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Painting]. 5 vols., Tokyo, 1982-1983. vol. 1: pp. 212-213.
  • Nakata Yujiro, Fu Shen. O-bei shuzo Chugoku hosho meiseki shu [Masterpieces of Chinese Calligraphy in American and European Collections]. 6 vols., Tokyo, 1981-1983. vol. 1: pls. 80-83.
  • William Cohn. Chinese Painting. London and New York. pls. 122-123.
  • Osvald Siren. Chinese Paintings in American Collections. Annales du Musee Guimet. Bibliotheque d'art. Nouvelle serie. II Paris and Brussels, 1927-1928. pls. 50, 51, 52.
  • unknown title. vol. 28, pt. 326 Tokyo, July 1917. pp. 9-10, pl. 6.
  • Marsha Weidner. Ho Ch'eng and early Yuan dynasty painting in Northern China. no. 39. p. 12.
  • Susan E. Nelson. On Through to the Beyond: The Peach Blossom Spring as Paradise. no. 39 New York and Honolulu, HI. p. 23.
  • Fu Shen, Glenn D. Lowry, Ann Yonemura, Thomas Lawton. From Concept to Context: Approaches to Asian and Islamic Calligraphy. Exh. cat. Washington. cat. 4, pp. 26-27.
  • Thomas Lawton. Chinese Figure Painting. Exh. cat. Washington, 1973. cat. 4, pp. 38-41.
  • The Peach Blossom Spring in Motion. p. 60.
  • D.A. Wilson. Tao Ch'ien's Return to the Country. New Series, vol. 16, no. 45 London, January 1920. pp. 109-111.
  • Martin J. Powers. Art as Worldmaking: Critical Essays on Realism and Naturalism. Manchester, MI. p. 120, Figs. 40-42.
  • Herbert Allen Giles. A History of Chinese Literature. New York. pp. 129-130.
  • Tao Yuanming, Karl-Heinz Pohl. Der Pfirsichblutenquell: gesammelte Gedichte. Koln. p. 154.
  • John Calvin Ferguson. Outlines of Chinese Art. Chicago. p. 173, fig. 1.
  • Wen C. Fong. Images of the Mind: Selections from the Edward L. Elliott Family and John B. Elliott Collections of Chinese Calligraphy and Painting at the Art Museum, Princeton University. Exh. cat. Pinceton. pp. 246-247.
  • Richard Edwards. The Heart of Ma Yuan: The Search for a Southern Song Aesthetic. Hong Kong. p. 271, fig. 8.29.
  • Karen Lee Brock. Tales of Gisho and Gangyo: Editor, Artist, and Audience in Japanese Picture Scrolls. Ann Arbor. p. 296.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Song and Yuan Dynasty Painting and Calligraphy
Google Cultural Institute
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