Washington Manuscript V – The Minor Prophets (Codex Washingtonensis)

Historical period(s)
Roman Period, mid-3rd century
Ink on papyrus
H x W: 29.5 x 14 cm (11 5/8 x 5 1/2 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Freer Gallery of Art
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view


Christianity, Egypt, Roman Period (30 BCE - 395 CE)
Provenance research underway.

This early papyrus codex is a complete Christian copy of the Greek text of the twelve Minor Prophets. A succession of people added Coptic glosses (clarifications or translations), perhaps adapting the codex to spread Christianity to people living outside the Hellenized cultural centers around the Nile. It was acquired in Egypt by American missionary David Askren, whose finds were purchased in 1916 by Charles Lang Freer in partnership with banker and financier J. P. Morgan, Jr.

Published References
  • Dr. Michelle Brown. In The Beginning: Bibles Before the Year 1000. Exh. cat. Washington, 2006. cat. 10, pp. 119, 253.
  • The Freer Biblical Manuscripts: Fresh Studies of an American Treasure Trove. Text-Critical Studies, no. 6 Atlanta, 2006. pp. 120-121, figs. 1-2.
Collection Area(s)
Biblical Manuscripts
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
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