Mountain Landscape

Historical period(s)
Qing dynasty, late 17th century
Nanjing School
Ink and color on silk
H x W: 168.1 x 96.4 cm (66 3/16 x 37 15/16 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view

Hanging scroll (mounted on panel)

China, landscape, mountain, Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911), river, water

To 1916
Li Wenqing (late 19th-early 20th century), Shanghai, to 1916 [1]

From 1916 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Li Wenqing, in New York, in 1916 [2]

From 1920
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [3]


[1] See Original Kakemono and Makimono List, L. 1040, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.

[2] See note 1.

[3] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)

Charles Lang Freer 1854-1919
Li Wenqing (C.L. Freer source) ca. 1869-1931


Although lacking an artist's signature, this large landscape can be assigned on the basis of style and execution to a mid- to late-seventeenth-century follower of the Nanjing School, such as Fan Qi (1616–after 1697) or Gao Cen (active 1640s–1679). Each element in the landscape is skillfully rendered. Sharp brushwork defines the trees and houses, while a palette of light, subtle colors, and a carefully modulated range of ink tonalities create a harmonious blend of gentle atmospheric effects. A stream and mountain path converge at the village, then split again, leading one's view alternately to the towering bluffs and crags on the left, or into a second valley with a distant waterfall at right. The artist's exposure to Western techniques of perspective, introduced into China by Jesuit artist-missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, is clearly apparent.

Published References
  • Suzuki Kei. Chugoku kaiga sogo zuroku [Comprehensive Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Painting]. 5 vols., Tokyo, 1982-1983. vol. 1: p. 189.
  • Osvald Siren. Chinese Paintings in American Collections. Annales du Musee Guimet. Bibliotheque d'art. Nouvelle serie. II Paris and Brussels, 1927-1928. pl. 130.
  • Stanton MacDonald Wright. Some Aspects of Sung Painting. vol. 242 Washington, October 1949. p. 221.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
SI Usage Statement

Usage Conditions Apply

There are restrictions for re-using this image. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

The information presented on this website may be revised and updated at any time as ongoing research progresses or as otherwise warranted. Pending any such revisions and updates, information on this site may be incomplete or inaccurate or may contain typographical errors. Neither the Smithsonian nor its regents, officers, employees, or agents make any representations about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the information on the site. Use this site and the information provided on it subject to your own judgment. The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery welcome information that would augment or clarify the ownership history of objects in their collections.