Yamanaka & Company, to 1901 
From 1901 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Yamanaka & Company in 1901 
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 
 Original folder sheet note. Also see Original Kakemono and Makimono List, L. 264, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. The majority of Charles Lang Freer’s purchases from Yamanaka & Company were made at its New York branch. Yamanaka & Company maintained branch offices, at various times, in Boston, Chicago, London, Peking, Shanghai, Osaka, Nara, and Kyoto. During the summer, the company also maintained seasonal locations in Newport, Bar Harbor, and Atlantic City. This object exhibits seals, colophons, or inscriptions that could provide additional information regarding the object’s history; see Curatorial Remarks in the object record for further details.
 See note 1.
 The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.
- Previous Owner(s) and Custodian(s)
Charles Lang Freer 1854-1919
Yamanaka and Co. (C.L. Freer source) 1917-1965
Depicts a group of flowering plants, with seven peony blossoms (one red, three pink, two white and one purple) and unidentified blue flowers (irises?) among ornamental garden rocks. Four seals, two inscriptions, no labels.
Legend has it that one winter day Empress Wu (reigned 684-705) commanded the flowers in her royal garden to bloom and all obeyed-except the peony. Angered, she banished the flower from Changan, the capital, to Luoyang, which is now known as the "City of Peonies." This tale of stubbornness and degradation notwithstanding, the tree peony was a favorite of the Tang dynasty court, prized for its exquisitely shaped petals and stunning colors. Peonies continue to be honored as a symbol of status and power, inspiring such sobriquets as the "king of flowers" (huawang), "beauty of nations and scent of heaven" (guoshe tianxiang), and "flower of wealth and rank" (fuguihua).
- Published References
- Li Hui-lin. Garden Flowers of China. Chronica Botanica, An International Biological and Agricultural Series, no. 19 New York. pl. 11.
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
- Web Resources
- Google Cultural Institute
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